Madagascar

English

This section contains a brief description of the legal system of Madagascar and lists research and documents relevant to pre-trial justice in Madagascar.

Madagascar became a French colony only in 1896 but regained independence on 26 June 1960 under the name of the Malagasy Republic, which followed a pro-Western policy until 1972 with the resignation of the President. A military coup in 1975 saw the country adopt the name Madagascar and enhance the programme of nationalisation and socialism embarked on in 1972. This policy was reversed in 1986 with Madagascar becoming a free-market economy, but with retention of military rule. Transitional government was introduced in 1991 and elections held over 1992-93. On 17 March 2009, democratically elected President Marc Ravalomanana stepped down and purported to transfer his authority to senior military figures, who in turn (after their arrest) handed over power to Andry Rajoelina, the mayor of Antananarivo. In October 2011 political stakeholders adopted a calendar toward new elections, put forward by mediators from the Southern African Development Community (SADC). In terms of this plan, a new Prime Minister was sworn in on 2 November 2011.

Madagascar has a civil law system based on the old French civil code, with customary law in matters of marriage, family, and obligation.

Madagascar has a constitution dating from 11 December 2010.

French

Cette section contient une brève description du système judiciaire Malgache et dresse une liste de recherches et de documents se rapportant à la justice avant-procès à Madagascar.

Madagascar devint une colonie française en 1896. Elle acquit son indépendance le 26 Juin 1960 sous le nom de la République Malgache, gouvernée selon une politique pro-occidentale jusqu’à la démission du président en 1972.

Un coup d'Etat militaire, organisé en 1975, vit le pays adopter le nom Madagascar et renforcer le programme de nationalisation et socialisme lancé en 1972. Cette politique fut inversée en 1986 et Madagascar devint une économie de libre sous régime militaire. Le gouvernement de transition fut introduit en 1991 et des élections furent organisées entre 1992 et 1993.

Le 17 Mars 2009, le président démocratiquement élu, Marc Ravalomanana, démissionna et transféra son pouvoir aux hauts responsables militaires, qui à leur tour (après leur arrestation) remirent le pouvoir à Andry Rajoelina, le maire d'Antananarivo.

En Octobre 2011 les acteurs politiques ont adopté un calendrier vers de nouvelles élections, mis en avant par les médiateurs de la Communauté de Développement d'Afrique Australe (SADC). Selon les termes de ce plan, un nouveau Premier ministre a prêté serment le 2 Novembre 2011. La campagne officielle pour la présidentielle démarre le 24 septembre 2013.

Madagascar est doté d'un système de droit civil basé sur l'ancien code civil français, le droit coutumier en matière de mariage, famille et des obligations. La Constitution date du 11 Décembre 2010.

Portuguese

Esta secção contém uma breve descrição do sistema jurídico do Madagáscar e elenca pesquisas e documentos pertinentes à justiça preventiva no Madagáscar.

O Madagáscar tornou-se uma colônia francesa apenas em 1896, mas recuperou a sua independência em 26 de Junho de 1960 sob o nome de República Malgaxe, seguindo uma política pró-ocidental até 1972, com as demissões do presidente. Um golpe militar, em 1975, viu o país adoptar o nome de Madagáscar e melhorar o programa de nacionalização e socialismo iniciado em 1972. Esta política foi revertida em 1986, e o Madagáscar tornou se uma economia de livre mercado, mas com a retenção do regime militar. Um governo de transição foi introduzido em 1991 e as eleições realizadas ao longo de 1992-93. Em 17 de Março de 2009, o presidente Marc Ravalomanana, eleito democraticamente, renunciou ao poder pretendendo transferir a sua autoridade para figuras seniores entre os militares, que por sua vez (após a prisão) entregaram o poder a Andry Rajoelina, o prefeito de Antananarivo. Em Outubro de 2011 actores políticos aprovaram um calendário para novas eleições, apresentada por mediadores da Comunidade de Desenvolvimento da África Subsaariana (Southern African Development Community, SADC). Nos termos deste plano, um novo primeiro-ministro foi empossado em 2 de Novembro de 2011.

O Madagáscar tem um sistema de direito civil com base no velho código civil Francês e direito consuetudinário em matéria de casamento, família, e obrigações.

O Madagáscar tem uma Constituição que data de 11 de Dezembro de 2010.

Madagascar
Author: Jean
Published: Nov 07, 2011

This section contains a brief description of the legal system of Madagascar.

Human Rights and Human Dignity in Madagascar
Author: Jean
Published: Jan 01, 2010

This report by Hans Maier published by the Human Rights Office of the Pontifical Mission Society provides on overview of the human rights situation in Madagascar, including prison conditions and remand detention.

US Department of State Human Rights Report: Madagascar 2012
Author: Suraj
Published: Mar 22, 2013

"The law provides for a presumption of innocence; however, this was often overlooked. The constitution and law provide defendants with the right to a full defense at every stage of the proceedings, and trials are public. While the law provides that juries can be used in all cases, they were used only in labor disputes. Defendants have the right to be present at their trials, to be informed of the charges against them, to call and confront witnesses, and to present evidence. The government is required to provide counsel for all detainees held on criminal charges who cannot afford their own attorney; however, many citizens were not aware of this right, nor made aware of it by authorities. Defendants who do not request or cannot afford counsel generally are given very little time to prepare their case. Attorneys have access to government-held evidence, but this right does not extend to defendants without attorneys. Legislation outlining defendants’ rights does not specifically refer to the right not to be compelled to testify but includes the right to be assisted by another person during the investigation/trial. Defendants have the right to appeal convictions. Although the law extends them to all citizens without exception, these rights were routinely denied as the de facto government prolonged incarceration of suspects for weeks without charge and continually postponed hearings while denying bail."

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