Liberia

English

Liberia became independent of the United States on 16 July 1847. Settlement of freed slaves from the United States in Liberia had begun in 1822. Between 1847 and 1980, the state of Liberia was governed by the small minority of African-American colonists and their offspring, called Americo-Liberians, with the Consitution denying the vote to indigenous Liberians. Nominal enfranchisement of indigenous Liberians only occurred in 1964; political suppression however continued.

The social inequalities between indigenous Liberians and the Americo-Liberians has lead to much of the political and social strife in the country, as leadership switched violently between dictators representing opposing groups (William Tolbert followed by Samuel Doe followed by Charles Taylor).

Thus in 1980, a military coup led by Samuel Doe, an indigenous Liberian, resulted in a decade of authoritarian rule. In December 1989, Charles Taylor launched a rebellion that led to a prolonged civil war in which Doe was killed.

A period of relative peace in the 1990's allowed for elections that brought Taylor to power, but major fighting resumed in 2000. An August 2003 peace agreement ended the war and prompted the resignation of Taylor, who faces war crimes charges in The Hague related to his involvement in Sierra Leone's civil war.

After two years of rule by a transitional government, democratic elections in late 2005 brought President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, a descendant of Americo-Liberians, to power.

Liberia has a mixed legal system of common law based on Anglo-American law and customary law.

Liberia has a Constitution dating from 1986.

In 2015/16 Liberia was hard hit by the largest outbreak of the Ebola virus.
ACJR has cooperated with Prison Fellowship (Liberia) and the Carter Centre on criminal justice reform.

French

Le Libéria acquit son indépendant des Etats-Unis le 26 Juillet 1847. En 1822, le Libéria est fondé par une société américaine de colonisation (The National Colonization Society of America, « la société nationale d'Amérique de colonisation »), pour y installer des esclaves noirs libérés.

Le suffrage censitaire permet à l'élite américano-libérienne et au parti True Whig de conserver le pouvoir durant un siècle. En 1931, la Société des Nations (SDN) condamne les conditions de travail forcé imposées aux autochtones par les Américano-Libériens pour le compte de multinationales de l’industrie du caoutchouc. Le scandale contraint le gouvernement à la démission et à l’interdiction du travail forcé en 1936. Néanmoins, les autochtones, privés de droit de vote, restent des citoyens de seconde zone. Il faudra attendre Mai 1945 pour que le président William Tubman accorde le droit de vote aux autochtones.

Le 12 avril 1980, le gouvernement du True Whig est renversé lors d'un coup mené par Samuel Kanyon Doe, un autochtone qui prend le pouvoir. Le président Tolbert est sauvagement assassiné ainsi que plusieurs ministres. Doe instaure rapidement une dictature.

En Décembre 1989, Charles Taylor lance une rébellion qui conduit à une guerre civile prolongée à l’issu de laquelle Doe perd la vie.

En 1996, l'ensemble des factions accepte la tenue d'un vote sous l'égide de la CEDEAO. Le 19 Juillet 1997, Charles Taylor est élu président de la République du Libéria avec 75 % des voix. Cependant, la validité de l'élection est mise en doute malgré les nombreux observateurs étrangers dépêchés pour l’occasion par des organisations internationales.

 De grands combats reprirent en 2000, un accord de paix -conclu en Août 2003- mit fin à la guerre et incita Taylor à la démission. Ce répond à des accusations de crimes de guerre à La Haye, concernant son implication dans la guerre civile en Sierra Leone.

A l’issu de deux ans de domination par un gouvernement de transition, des élections démocratiques on été organisée fin 2005 et portèrent Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, descendant Américano-Libériens, a la présidence.

Le Libéria est doté d’un système judiciaire mixte de droit commun fondé sur le droit anglo-américain et le droit coutumier. La Constitution date de 1986.

En 2015/16, le Libéria a été gravement touché par le foyer le plus important du virus Ebola.
L'ACJR a coopéré avec Prison Fellowship (Liberia) et le Carter Centre on criminal justice reform.

Portuguese

A Libéria se tornou independente dos Estados Unidos em 16 de Julho de 1847.  O estabelecimento de escravos libertos dos Estados Unidos na Libéria tinha começado em 1822. Entre 1847 e 1980, o Estado da Libéria foi governado por uma pequena minoria de colonos Afro-americanos e seus descendentes, chamados Américo-liberianos, com uma constituição que negava o voto aos indígenas liberianos. O Enfranchisement dos indígenas liberianos ocorreu só em 1964; no entanto, a supressão política continuou.

A desigualdade social entre os indígenas liberianos e os Americo-Liberianos liderou uma grande parte da luta política e social no país, quando a liderança mudou violentamente entre dictadores que representavam opostos grupos (William Tolbert seguido por Samuel Doe seguido por Charles Taylor).

Assim, em 1980, um golpe militar liderado por Samuel Doe, um indígena liberiano, resultou num governo autoritário que durou uma década. Em Dezembro de 1989, Charles Taylor começou uma rebelião que levou a uma guerra civil prolongada, causando a morte de Doe.

Um período de relativa paz na década de 1990 permitiu a realização de eleições que  colocaram Taylor ao poder, mas as lutas recomeçaram em 2000. Em Agosto de 2003, um acordo de paz pôs fim à guerra e obrigaram o Taylor a demissões, o qual enfrentou acusações por crimes de guerra relacionadas ao seu envolvimento na guerra civil de Serra Leoa, em Haia.

Depois de um governo de transição de dois anos, eleições democráticas no final de 2005, coloram ao poder o presidente Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, um descendente de Américo-liberianos.

A Libéria tem um sistema jurídico misto de direito comum, baseado no direito Anglo-americano, e direito consuetudinário.

A Libéria tem uma Constituição que data de 1986.

Em 2015/16, a Libéria foi duramente atingida pelo maior surto do vírus Ebola.
A ACJR cooperou com a Prison Fellowship (Libéria) eo Centro Carter para a reforma da justiça penal.

Catholic Justice and Peace Commission
Author: Jean
Published: Nov 26, 2012

The Justice and Peace Commission (JPC) is a human rights monitoring, advocacy, and civic education organization. The JPC is a national organization with three independent jurisdictional dioceses in Gbarnga, Monrovia and Cape Palmas.

Prison Fellowship Liberia
Author: Jean
Published: Nov 26, 2012

Chartered in 1989, Prison Fellowship Liberia seeks to provide help and healing for prisoners throughout the country. With the help of volunteers, education and restorative justice programs, mentoring, and legal assistance are available to inmates. In addition, PF Liberia is active and successful in seeking the release of pre-trial detainees in Liberia through its mediation programme run in partnership with East-West Management Institute.

Prison Fellowship Liberia
Author: Jean
Published: Nov 26, 2012

Chartered in 1989, Prison Fellowship Liberia seeks to provide help and healing for prisoners throughout the country. With the help of volunteers, education and restorative justice programs, mentoring, and legal assistance are available to inmates. In addition, PF Liberia is active and successful in seeking the release of pre-trial detainees in Liberia through its mediation programme run in partnership with East-West Management Institute.

Only three percent of new cases tried in a year in Liberia
Author: Jean
Published: Aug 13, 2012

A report by the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) on Liberia's justice system has revealed that only 3 per cent of cases docketed in the Circuit Courts in 2010 went to trial, leaving thousands awaiting trial in the country's prisons.

Religion, law and human rights in post-conflict Liberia
Author: Jean
Published: Feb 01, 2008

This article was published in AHRLJ Volume 8 No 2 2008. Liberia has had a turbulent recent history, and today deals with extreme poverty, high crime, ethnic tensions, widespread impunity and corruption. In addition to this, there is a complex and contradictory relationship between law and religion, which further complicates the ongoing efforts towards peace building and reconstruction. This paper aims to highlight the fundamental question of whether certain laws and human rights — in this case, religious or cultural freedom — can or should be actively promoted by the state and by society in such a unique scenario as fragile, post-conflict Liberia. The paper first addresses this question with respect to the country's contradictory dual-justice system, highlighting the problems that arise when the weak state struggles to enforce statutory and human rights law, while much of the population still sees legitimate justice to be rooted in traditional mechanisms, such as trials by ordeal, which oppose these laws. The second section of the paper considers the extent to which all Liberians enjoy religious freedom. It is shown that, while Liberia is de facto a secular state, it is essentially de jure a Christian country. Although there are historically and presently few indications of unrest based strictly on religion, it is argued that there is underlying religious tension that makes it dangerous for the state or society to suggest any major integration of Islam into public life. Some of this tension can be attributed to the growing number of Pentecostal and charismatic churches, which are especially vocal about the encroachment of non-Christians. However, because of Liberia's fragility, it might be the case that promoting religious equality and actively eliminating the Christian bias might cause more harm than good in Liberia today.

© 2016 Dullah Omar Institute
CMS Website by Juizi