Burundi

English

Burundi became independent of UN trusteeship (under Belgian administration) on 1 July 1962, as a constitutional monarchy.

The monarch Mwambutsa IV presided over a government of Hutu and Tutsi ministers until the assassination of the Hutu Prime Minister by a Tutsi assassin in January 1965.

The May 1965 election brought in a Hutu majority. The reactionary appointment by Mwambutsa of his Tutsi private secretary as prime minister, lead to an attempted coup by Hutu officers. The monarch fled abroad, leaving his 18-year-old son in power, who in turn was deposed and a republic was proclaimed, with the Tutsi in power.

Ethnic slaughter in April and May 1972, in response to an attempted uprising, resulted in at least 100,000 people being killed, among them nearly all educated Hutus.

After series of Tutsi coups President Pierre Buyoya came to power in 1987. Buyoya took steps to heal the country and democratic elections were held in 1993.

Buyoya unexpectedly lost the elections and a Hutu government with a mixed cabinet under Melchior Ndadaye followed but within 100 days Ndadaye was assassinated. More than 200,000 Burundians died during the subsequent conflict and hundreds of thousands of Burundians were internally displaced or became refugees in neighboring countries.

An internationally negotiated power-sharing agreement between the Tutsi-dominated government and the Hutu rebels in 2003 paved the way for a transition process that led to an integrated defence force, established a new constitution in 2005, and elected a majority Hutu government in 2005.

The new government under Pierre Nkurunziza signed a South African-brokered ceasefire with the country's last rebel group in September 2006. Nkurunziza was re-elected in 2010.

Pierre Nkurunziza was elected for a third term in 2015, despite the Constitution providing for a two-term limit. The Supreme Court of Burundi granted the third term, based on a contested interpretation of the 2006 Arusha agreement and the Constitution. Since then, Burundi has descended into severe civil unrest, causing the death of hundreds of people and displacing several hundred thousand. Many many office bearers, members of civil society organisations and ordinary citizens have had to flee the country.  

Burundi has a mixed legal system of Belgian civil law and customary law.

Burundi has a constitution dating from 2005.

ACJR has collaborated with local civil society organisations, in particular with International Bridges to Justice - Burundi and with ACAT-Burundi, as well as with its NHRI (Commission Nationale Indépendante des Droits de l'Homme), on domesticating the UN Convention against Torture and on developing a road map for its implementation.

French

Le Burundi a acquit son indépendance de la tutelle de l'ONU (sous l'administration belge) le 1er Juillet 1962, entant que monarchie constitutionnelle.

Le monarque Mwambutsa IV présidait un gouvernement composé de ministres Hutu et Tutsi jusqu'à l'assassinat du Premier ministre Hutu par un Tutsi en Janvier 1965.

Les  élections  de mai 1965 aboutirent à une majorité Hutu. La décision réactionnaire de  Mwambutsa de nommer son secrétaire privé d’ethnie Tutsi en tant que Premier ministre, entraînât une tentative de coup d'Etat par des officiers Hutus. Le monarque fut obligé de fuire vers l'étranger, laissant le pouvoir à son fils âgé de 18 ans. Ce dernier fut à son tour détrôné au profit d’une république portant les Tutsis au pouvoir.

En réponse à une tentative de soulèvement, des massacres ethniques eurent lieu en avril et mai 1972 et firent au moins 100.000 morts, dont la plus part étaient des Hutus instruits.

Après une série de coups d’Etats organisés par les Tutsis, le président Pierre Buyoya prit le pouvoir en 1987. Buyoya entreprit de consolider le pays et organisa des élections démocratiques en 1993.

La défaite inattendue de Buyoya aux élections fit place à un gouvernement Hutu doté d’un cabinet mixte sous la présidence de Melchior Ndadaye, assassiné dans les 100 jours qui suivirent. Plus de 200.000 Burundais perdirent la vie dans les troubles qui suivirent l’assassinat de Ndadaye, et des centaines de déplacés internes et de réfugiés dans les pays voisins.

Un accord de partage du pouvoir négocié au niveau international entre le gouvernement dominé par les Tutsis et les rebelles Hutus en 2003 ouvrit la voie à un processus de transition qui conduit à une force de défense intégrée ; à l’élaboration d’une nouvelle Constitution en 2005 ; et à l’élection d’un gouvernement majoritairement Hutu en 2005.

En Septembre 2006, le nouveau gouvernement dirigé par Pierre Nkurunziza signa un cessez-le-feu développé en Afrique du Sud, négocié avec le dernier groupe rebelle du pays. Nkurunziza fut réélu en 2010.

Pierre Nkurunziza fut élu pour un troisième mandat en 2015, alors que la Constitution prévoie une limite de deux termes. La Cour Constitutionnelle du Burundi accordat le troisième mandat, sur la base d'une interprétation contestée de l'accord d'Arusha de 2006 et de la Constitution. Depuis lors, le Burundi fait face à des troubles civils sévères, causant la mort de centaines de personnes et en déplacant plusieurs centaines de milliers. De nombreux de hauts fonctionnaires, des membres des organisations de la société civile et des citoyens ordinaires ont dû fuir le pays.

Le Burundi a un système judicaire qui tire ses sources du droit civil Belge et du droit coutumier.

La constitution du Burundi date de 2005.

L'ACJR a collaboré avec des organisations locales de la société civile, en particulier avec International Bridges to Justice - Burundi et avec l'ACAT-Burundi, ainsi qu'avec la Commission Nationale Indépendante des Droits de l'Homme, sur l'intégration de la Convention des Nations Unies contre la Torture dans son arsenal juridique interne et sur l'élaboration d'une feuille de route pour la mise en œuvre de ladite Convention.

Portuguese

Esta seção contém uma breve descrição do sistema jurídico do Burundi e elenca pesquisas e documentos pertinentes à justiça preventiva no Burundi.

O Burundi tornou-se independente da tutela das NU (sob administração Belga) em 1 de Julho de 1962, como uma monarquia constitucional.

O monarca Mwambutsa IV dirigiu um governo de ministros Hutus e Tutsis, até o assassinato do primeiro-ministro Hutu por um Tutsi, em Janeiro de 1965.

A eleição de Maio de 1965 trouxe uma maioria Hutu. A nomeação reacionária, por Mwambutsa, do seu secretário particular Tutsi como primeiro-ministro levou a uma tentativa de golpe por oficiais Hutus. O monarca fugiu para o exterior, deixando o seu filho de 18 anos no poder, que por sua vez foi deposto e uma república foi proclamada, com Tutsi no poder.

Uma matanças étnicas em Abril e Maio de 1972, como resposta a uma tentativa de revolta, resultou em pelo menos 100 mil pessoas mortas, entre elas quase todas instruídas Hutus.

Após uma série de golpes Tutsi, o Presidente Pierre Buyoya chegou ao poder em 1987. Buyoya tomou medidas para sanar o país e eleições democráticas foram realizadas em 1993.

Buyoya perdeu as eleições inesperadamente e um governo Hutu com um gabinete misto sob Melchior Ndadaye seguiu, mas dentro de 100 dias Ndadaye foi assassinado. Mais de 200.000 burundineses morreram durante o conflicto e centenas de milhares de burundineses foram deslocados internamente ou fugiram como refugiados nos países vizinhos.

Em 2003, um acordo internacional negociado entre o governo dominado pelos Tutsi e os rebeldes Hutus abriu o caminho para um processo de transição que levou a uma força de defesa integrada, estabelecendo uma nova Constituição em 2005, e elegendo  um governo de maioria Hutu, em 2005.

O novo governo sob Pierre Nkurunziza assinou um cessar-fogo com o último grupo rebelde do país, em Setembro de 2006, mediado pela África do Sul. Nkurunziza foi reeleito em 2010.

Pierre Nkurunziza foi eleito pela terceira vez em 2015, apesar da Constituição prever um limite de dois mandatos. O Supremo Tribunal do Burundi concedeu o terceiro mandato, baseado em uma interpretação contestada do Acordo de Arusha de 2006 e da Constituição. Desde então, a grande instabilidade civil do Burundi causou a morte de centenas de pessoas e deslocando várias centenas de milhares. Muitos detentores de cargos públicos, membros de organizações da sociedade civil e cidadãos comuns tiveram que fugir do país.

O Burundi tem um sistema jurídico misto de direito civil Belga e direito consuetudinário.

O Burundi tem uma Constituição datada de 2005.

A ACJR colaborou com as organizações locais da sociedade civil, em especial com International Bridges to Justice - Burundi e com ACAT-Burundi, bem como com a sua Comissão Nacional Independente dos Direitos do Homem, sobre a domesticação da Convenção das Nações Unidas contra a Tortura e Sobre o desenvolvimento de um plano de reforma para a sua implementação.

A Comparative Study of Bail Legislation in Malawi, Mozambique and Burundi
Author: Jean
Published: Oct 12, 2016

The deprivation of liberty is a serious intervention in any person’s life, and therefore the possibility of releasing an accused person from custody pending trial is a fundamental part of criminal justice systems across the world. Criminal justice systems have developed various ways to ensure, at least in law, that accused persons appear for trial without depriving them of their liberty. Such release may be conditional or unconditional. Unconditional release usually takes the form of a warning to appear in court at a later date, while conditional release can be secured through bail, bond, surety, and supervision. This paper reviews the laws on conditional release in Burundi, Malawi and Mozambique. These three countries were selected on the basis that they represent not only different types of legal systems but Francophone, Anglophone and Lusophone legal traditions, respectively. --

Constitutionality of Criminal Procedure and Prison Laws in Africa: Burundi
Author: Jean
Published: Oct 01, 2016

The purpose of this study is to briefly examine major developments in Burundi’s criminal procedure legislation and prison laws since the adoption of its 2005 Constitution and to assess how these developments may have impacted on human rights. In effect, this study seeks to understand whether subordinate legislation in Burundi is in line with constitutional provisions and international standards relating to procedural safeguards for arrested and detained persons.

Constitutionality of Criminal Procedure and Prison Laws in Africa A comparative study of Burundi, Côte d’Ivoire, Kenya, Mozambique and Zambia
Author: Jean
Published: Oct 01, 2016

This study reviews 41 rights of arrested, accused and detained persons under Burundian, Ivorian, Kenyan, Mozambican and Zambian law. These countries were chosen because they represent Anglophone, Francophone and Lusophone Africa as well as countries that have a civil law and common law tradition. The study begins by reviewing 17 rights of those arrested and detained in police custody; it goes on to examine 18 rights of accused persons; and ends by considering six rights of those detained in prison on remand or as sentenced prisoners. Each right is examined from three angles: first, whether it is recognised under international human rights law; secondly, to what extent the right is enshrined in the domestic constitution of the jurisdiction under review; and thirdly, to what extent the right is upheld and developed in subordinate legislation.

ACAT Burundi
Author: Jean
Published: Apr 12, 2012

The Action by Christians for the abolition of torture in Burundi (ACAT Burundi) is a non-profit association whose mission is to fight for the respect of human dignity, and particularly for the abolition of torture and the death penalty. ACAT Burundi acts for all those that are being tortured, detained in inhuman conditions, have been sentenced to death or have disappeared irrespective of their origins, political opinions or religious beliefs.

Burundi Bridges to Justice
Author: Jean
Published: Apr 12, 2012

Burundi Bridges to Justice is a locally registered NGO associated with International Bridges for Justice

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